Here is all the coronation regalia being used at the crowning of the King and Queen Consort.
The sacred, priceless objects are part of the Crown Jewels – the nation’s most precious treasures – which are held in trust by the King for the country and kept under armed guard in the Tower of London.
– Two ceremonial maces
Maces – based on medieval weapons – are used in royal processions to symbolise royal authority and will be carried before the sovereign on his way to Westminster Abbey.
They date between 1660 and 1695, and are also used at the State Opening of Parliament.
– St Edward’s Staff
St Edward’s Staff, also known as the Long Sceptre, has a pike of steel at the bottom and is carried as part of the procession into the abbey.
Most of the original ancient coronation regalia was destroyed by Oliver Cromwell during the English Civil and remade during the reign of Charles II, including the staff which was a relic associated with Edward the Confessor.
“But Charles II said ‘No. I want the full set’ and it was made even though no one quite knew what it was for,” he said.
– Swords of Temporal Justice, Spiritual Justice and Mercy
The practice of carrying three swords, representing kingly virtues, dates back to the coronation of Richard the Lionheart in 1189.
They are carried pointing upwards, unsheathed without their scabbards, in the coronation procession in the abbey.
Together with the coronation spoon, the three swords – which date from the reign of Charles I – were the only pieces of the coronation regalia to survive the Civil War.
– Sword of State
The 17th-century Sword of State is carried in procession to the abbey.
It is also carried during the State Opening of Parliament.
– THE ANOINTING
The anointing of the King with holy oil is the most sacred part of the ceremony.
The gold Ampulla is shaped in the form of an eagle with outspread wings and is used to hold the consecrated oil.
It is based on an earlier smaller vessel which took inspiration from a 14th-century legend saying the Virgin Mary appeared to St Thomas Becket in a dream and presented him with a golden eagle and a vial of oil for anointing future kings of England.
– Coronation Spoon
The 12th-century spoon is considered the “most humble” but the oldest object in the Crown Jewels.
The blessed oil is poured into the bowl or head of the spoon to allow the Archbishop to dip his fingers into it.
The Coronation Spoon survived Parliament’s destruction of the Crown Jewels in 1649 because it was bought by a royal servant in a sale of the executed Charles I’s goods and later returned to Charles II.
Made of silver gilt, it has an oval bowl which is engraved with acanthus scrolls and divided into two lobes – allowing enough space for two fingers to be used for dipping.
Its stem features two stylised monsters’ heads, pearls and interlaced scrolling.
– THE INVESTITURE
The investiture part of the coronation is when the King is given all the symbolic objects representing his powers and responsibilities.
It stems from medieval times when coronation ceremonies were in Latin, with the symbols ensuring those in the audience who could not speak Latin could interpret their meaning.
– Golden Spurs
Each of the gold spurs features a Tudor rose and velvet-covered strap with gold embroidery.
They were made for Charles II and symbolise knighthood and chivalry.
– Sword of Offering
The intricate tapered sword, made for George IV’s 1821 coronation, has a hilt encrusted with diamonds, rubies and emeralds and a scabbard decorated with jewelled roses, thistles and shamrocks.
During the service, it is presented to the monarch, who carries it to be placed on the altar.
The peer then draws the sword and carries it in its “naked” form – without its scabbard – before the monarch for the rest of the service.
It symbolises royal power and the monarch accepting his duty and knightly virtues.
Golden armlets – known as Armills – are placed on the sovereign’s wrists.
They are known as the “bracelets of sincerity and wisdom” and are thought to relate to ancient symbols of knighthood and military leadership.
But the King will use the original pair last used by his grandfather, George VI.
They are decorated with national emblems – roses, thistles, fleurs-de-lis and harps – dark blue fleurets and red pellets, and lined in red velvet.
– Sovereign’s Orb
The Sovereign’s Orb, with its cross mounted on a golden globe, symbolises that the monarch’s power is derived from God.
During the coronation service, the Orb – which weighs 1.3kg and dates back to 1661 – is placed in the monarch’s right hand.
It is then put on the altar before the moment of crowning.
– Sovereign’s Ring
Known as the “Wedding Ring of England”, the Sovereign’s Ring – also called the Coronation Ring – is a symbol of “kingly dignity”.
It is placed on the fourth finger of the monarch’s right hand by the Archbishop of Canterbury.
A new ring used to be made for each king or queen, but for nearly 200 years monarchs have used William IV’s 1831 ring – except for Queen Victoria whose fingers were too small so she had a new one made.
William IV’s ring features a large sapphire and diamond cluster with baguette-cut rubies in the form of a cross.
The rubies represent the cross of the patron saint of England St George and the sapphire is said to represent the Scottish flag.
– Sovereign’s Sceptre with the Cross
The Sovereign’s Sceptre with Cross has been used at every coronation since Charles II’s in 1661.
The sceptre was transformed in 1910 for George V with the addition of the spectacular Cullinan I diamond – 530.2 carats and the largest colourless cut diamond in the world.
– Sovereign’s Sceptre with Dove
This sceptre is symbolic of justice and mercy and is placed in the monarch’s left hand for the crowning.
Made from gold, it is decorated with enamelled and gem-set collars at three intersections, surmounted by a gold monde, with an applied silver zone and arc set with rose diamonds, and a gold cross supporting an enamelled dove with outspread wings.
– St Edward’s Crown – The Coronation Crown
The St Edward’s Crown is used at the moment of coronation.
Weighing 2.23kg (nearly 5lb), it is the heaviest crown in the Crown Jewels.
In 1953, the then-archbishop of Canterbury Dr Geoffrey Fisher raised it aloft and placed it on Queen Elizabeth II’s head.
It has a solid gold frame and is set with tourmalines, white and yellow topazes, rubies, amethysts, sapphires, garnet, peridot, zircons, spinel and aquamarines, step-cut and rose-cut and mounted in enamelled gold collets, and has a purple velvet cap with an ermine band.
The crown was made for the coronation of Charles II in 1661 and was a replacement for the medieval crown, which was melted down on the orders of Oliver Cromwell in 1649 after the execution of Charles I.
The original was thought to date back to the 11th-century royal saint, Edward the Confessor, the last Anglo-Saxon king of England.
It is St Edward’s Crown that appears in the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, the Royal Mail logo and in badges of the Armed Forces.
Such was its weight, the late Queen practised wearing it around Buckingham Palace ahead of her coronation to ensure she could move with it on her head.
Under a top secret operation, the crown was briefly removed from the Tower of London to be resized to fit the King’s head.
– THE QUEEN CONSORT’S REGALIA
– The Queen Consort’s Ring
The ruby ring was made for the Coronation of King William IV for his consort Queen Adelaide in 1831.
It will be put on the fourth finger of Camilla’s right hand.
Made of extended octagonal mixed-cut ruby, it has a gold setting, unbacked, within a border of 14 cushion-shaped brilliant diamonds.
– Queen Mary’s Crown
Camilla has chosen to be crowned in the crown made for Charles’s great-grandmother Queen Mary for George V’s coronation in 1911.
It used to feature the controversial Koh-i-noor diamond but this will not be used and the crown is being altered to include the Cullinan III, IV and V diamonds – from Elizabeth II’s personal jewellery collection.
Four of its eight detachable arches are being removed to create a different look at Camilla’s request.
– The Queen Consort’s Sceptre with Cross
Camilla will hold the gold rod in her right hand after being crowned.
It is surmounted by a monde with a zone and arc of moulded gold set with table-cut quartzes, with a cross above mounted with rose-cut and shaped quartzes.
– The Queen Consort’s Rod with Dove
The controversial rod is made of ivory and Camilla will hold it with her left hand after being crowned, despite the Prince of Wales’s campaign against the trade in ivory.
It symbolises equity and mercy and the dove, with its folded wings, represents the Holy Ghost. It was also made for Mary of Modena.
– THE FINAL CROWN
– Imperial State Crown
The King will switch from the St Edward’s Crown into the lighter Imperial Crown before he processes out of the abbey at the end of the service.
It will be the first time he has worn the famous symbol of the monarchy – which is used at State Openings of Parliament – in public.
It was originally made for the coronation of his grandfather George VI in 1937 and contains 2,868 diamonds, 17 sapphires, 11 emeralds, four rubies and 269 pearls and weighs over a kilogram.
Among its jewels is the Black Prince’s Ruby – one the late Queen’s favourite gems, as well as the Cullinan II diamond and a large oval sapphire known as the Stuart Sapphire.